History of the Independence of Algeria

Algeria must remain French, beginning of the insurrection

In 1954, France remains at a fiction: Algeria is French. The War of Independence, which begins at the end of the year 1954 is for the view a complete surprise. Yet it is the culmination of a long process of maturation of Algerian nationalism.

The historical figures of this nationalism are called: Abd El Kader, L’Emir Khaled, Ibn Badis, Messali hadj, Ferhat Abbas.

The basis of this nationalism are : Islam is my religion, Arabic is my language, Algeria is my country.

In 1945, while Europe is liberating itself from Nazism, and celebrates the Liberation Day on the 8th 1945, an insurrection occurs in Algeria, repressed in blood, which will provide to France ten years of ”peace.”

From March 1954, nine years after the massacre of Setif, is founded the Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action by the nine ”historic leaders of the FLN” -  in part from the OS (Special Organization), which goal is the independence of Algeria through an armed struggle. At the time, supporters of independence are a thousand and have only a few sticks of dynamite and 32 old Italian rifles.

The Revolutionary Committee of Unity and Action (CRUA) is the name taken by the movement founded in March 1954 by the nine historic resistant responsible for triggering thewar of independence of Algeria: Krim Belkacem,Mostefa Ben Boulaid, Larbi Ben M’Hidi, Bitat Rabah, Mohamed Boudiaf, Mourad Didouche, Hocine Ait Ahmed,Ahmed Ben Bella and Mohamed Khider. They had all been members of the Special Organization, the armed wing of MTLD, a nationalist movement led by Messali Hajj.

On the 10th of  October 1954, it takes the name of National Liberation Front.
Between may and june 1954, one of the first decisions is to divide Algeria into five areas:

  • Zone No.1, the Aurès, assigned to Mostefa Ben Boulaïd.
  • Zone No.2, the north of Constantine, to Didouche Mourad.
  • Zone No.3, the Kabylie, to Krim Belkacem and Amar Ouamrane.
  • Zone No.4, Algiers and center, to Rabah Bitat.
  • Zone No.5, Oran, to Larbi Ben M’Hidi.

Mohamed Boudiaf is responsible for coordination between the zones.

LA TOUSSAINT ROUGE :

The main objective is to begin/start the movement of the armed struggle, which beginning is scheduled before the end of the year; this has taken place on the 1st November 1954 by a series of coordinated actions in Algiers, Oran and Constantine.

With trivial means and a few men, the FLN declared war to France.

1827 > 1954 > 1955 > 1956 > 1957 > 1958 > 1959 > 1960 > 1961 > 1962